As inflation steadily rose throughout the year, workers saw rising prices reduce their wages – much as employers try to cut back or modernize work practices to cope with rising costs.
The result: wage disputes, layoffs, pensions and employment conditions.
The new “winter of discontent” began even before Jeremy Hunt’s November 17 fall announcement, making homeowners around the world feel even worse.
And as the cost of living crisis deepens, disputes will inevitably escalate.
Here are the occupations and industries for which strike dates have already been announced:
Industrial action is expected to start before the end of this year after the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) announced in November that the nursing staff of most UK NHS employers had voted to strike over pay and patient safety.
The union is calling for a 5 percent above-inflation wage increase, saying that despite a wage increase earlier this year, the situation for experienced nurses has worsened by 20 percent because of successive below-inflation awards since 2010.
He called for detailed negotiations in the coming weeks or to announce strike dates for December.
The RCN’s mandate to organize strikes runs until early May next year.
Services across the country will be paralyzed on Saturday 26 November as members of the Aslef drivers’ union over 11 train operators will walk out in a long-running pay dispute.
Members of the RMT union have already taken part in an eight-day strike since June, which has brought much of the rail network to a standstill.
And passengers could face another six months of strikes over disputes involving drivers and other workers.
The bosses, who want to cut 1,900 jobs, say the railroad has not recovered from the coronavirus pandemic, is currently losing millions a day and is in desperate need of an upgrade.
Some services will be severely disrupted and others will not work at all.
The strike will hit these rail operators: Avanti West Coast; Chiltern Railways; cross-country races; East Midlands Railway; Great Western Railway; Greater England; London North Eastern Railway; Northern trains; southeastern; Transpennine Express and West Midlands Trains.
On Sunday, November 27, some disruption is expected as staff return to their duties.
Meanwhile, Avanti West Coast is strongly advising customers to check before traveling ahead of further strikes by RMT members working as train managers this Sunday and November 26.
A significantly shortened timetable will apply and services may be disrupted on the days leading up to and after.
Members of the Avanti RMT trade union are also scheduled to strike on December 11 and 12.
Christmas mail deliveries will be disrupted if, as planned, Royal Mail workers stage six new strikes next month, including on Christmas Eve, over pay, jobs and conditions.
The Communications Workers Union (CWU) said its members would go out on December 9, 11, 14, 15, 23 and 24.
This is in addition to the strikes already announced for Thursday and Friday, November 24 and 25, as well as Wednesday, November 30 and Thursday, December 1.
Royal Mail bosses, who have consulted plans to cut around 10,000 full-time jobs by August, have offered a 9 per cent pay increase.
CWU Post Office members have organized six strikes so far. Around 1,500 people took action in August and a similar number are likely to come out again next time in a non-Royal Mail dispute.
Workers who deliver cash and supplies to sub-post offices, handle finances and work in administration have supported the industrial action for higher wages.
CWU did not announce the date of the new strikes, saying only that they are to start next year.
The union said the action was a protest against a 3 per cent wage offer for the 2022/23 financial year together with a lump sum payment of £500.
Civil servants at the Home Office, Border Guard, Department of Transport and Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs are to take industrial action that will affect services ranging from passport control at ports and airports to driving tests and the issuance of driving licences.
The Union of Public and Commercial Services (PCS) said the action will start in mid-December and run for a month straight on wages, jobs and pensions.
Some employees will work for the entire month, while others will be off for shorter periods.
It was reported that the Army will begin training troops to replace the Border Patrol officers who will leave.
More industrial action will be announced next month.
They are demanding a 10% wage increase and a guarantee of job security and dismissal conditions.
Bus driver strikes in Sunderland will continue after drivers rejected an offer of below-inflation pay.
The GMB union said two-thirds of its members working for Stagecoach in the city had turned down an offer below the 10 percent demanded.
Almost 200 drivers have already started strikes lasting several days.
Ground staff employed by a private contractor at Heathrow Airport went on a 72-hour strike on Friday 18 November.
About 350 Unite members working for Menzies walked out, disrupting many flights.
Offshore workers went on strike for two days in mid-November over a pay dispute.
Unite Scotland said its members on Repsol assets joined an overtime ban and 48-hour shutdown on Wednesday 16 November and Thursday 17 November.
Further 48-hour shutdowns are planned for Wednesday, November 30 and Thursday, December 1.
Firefighters are set to vote on strikes after rejecting a 5 percent wage offer that union members say is a real wage cut.
Members of the Fire Brigade Union (FBU) will be elected in the coming weeks on whether to hold a protest action.
If they vote yes, it could lead to the first nationwide pay strike since 2003.
Voting will run from December 5 to January 23.
Workers at Britain’s only co-op coffin factory stage a two-week strike.
Around 50 workers have left the Glasgow factory after Unite members voted to go on strike in August.
Workers rejected the offer, which they described as a real wage cut.